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## Methods and Statistics

2019-2020

### Course Objective

Competences covered according to the General Educational Framework
Dentistry 2008:II c, d, f (5)
The student
• knows, understands, interprets and applies the basic principles
of statistical methods and techniques (measurement level, measures of
central tendency and dispersion, graphical presentations, normal
distribution, null hypothesis testing, power, type I error, type II
error, confidence intervals). Furthermore, the student is able to
evaluate whether these concepts and techniques are used correctly.
• knows of several statistical techniques when, why and how to use
them and can identify whether they are used and interpreted correctly.
These statistical techniques are: the Chi-square test, (one-sample,
independent-samples and paired-samples) t-tests, (repeated measures) (M)
AN(C)OVA, correlation coefficients (Pearson and Spearman), linear
regression analysis, logistic regression analysis, odds ratio, relative
risk, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Kruskal-Wallis
test, and the Friedman test.
• is able to conduct a t-test and a Chi-square test without a
computer.
• is able to enter data into SPSS and can create new variables
based on existing ones. Furthermore, the student is able to conduct
statistical techniques using SPSS and interpret the results.
• identifies, gains insight, interprets and evaluates the
reliability of measurement methods (Cohen’s Kappa, ICC, Cronbach’s
alpha).
• evaluates whether the authors of a paper draw the correct
conclusion based on the statistical analysis and the research
methodology and shows insight into the clinical significance of
findings.
• is able to conduct statistics using SPSS, which is practiced
during the course, and to interpret SPSS output, which is part of the
exam.

### Course Content

Competencies with regard to statistics and research methodology are
necessary for conducting research and appraising scientific papers. The
focus in this course is on theory and practice of statistics in dental
and oral health research. The course covers the statistical and
methodological concepts of measurement levels, frequency distributions
and power calculations; testing causal hypotheses in the context of
etiological and intervention research, and some principles of diagnostic
and prognostic research.
Participants gain applied knowledge through preparatory homework
assignments and practical course assignments using statistical software.
The course exam with open ended and multiple choice questions on theory
and practice of research statistics and is partly based on dental and
oral health research papers. The course ends with a feedback on the test
session.

### Teaching Methods

Lectures, interactive seminars, computer practicals, homework
assignments, assignments.

### Method of Assessment

Learning assessment
• Written exam: with closed and open questions (grade: 1-10)

The final grade is the grade of the written exam, partly based on one or
two research papers, composed of closed and open end answers. The grade
of the closed end questions forms 40% of the final grade, the grade of
the open end questions 60%. More weight is given to the questions about
statistics, compared to the questions pertaining to methodological
issues in the open end questions. The exam is rated using an answer
scheme by one or both teachers. In case of doubt the teachers discuss
the result.
Pass above 5,5.

### Literature

• Field, A. Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics. 5th
ed. +cd. Sage Publishing. ISBN: 9781526419521.
• Petrie, A., Sabin, C. (2009). Medical Statistics at a Glance. 3nd
edition. Blackwell Publishers. ISBN: 9781405127806.

### General Information

Course Code T_G1METHST 3 EC Ac. Year (sept) 400 English Faculty of Dentistry dr. I.H.A. Aartman dr. I.H.A. Aartman dr. I.H.A. Aartman dr. A.J. van Wijk

### Practical Information

You need to register for this course yourself

Teaching Methods Study Group*, Other*, Lecture*

*You cannot select a group yourself for this teaching method, you will be placed in a group.