Replacement Refinement and Reduction of Animal Experiments in Biomedical Research: From Origins to Implementation


Course Objective

Lecture topics:

• The evolution of drug safety testing and ethical issues related to
animal use.
• Russell and Burch and the origins and implementation of the 3Rs.
• Cell culture including primary cells, cell lines, and induced
pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC): generation, culture.
• Toxicity assays, Molecular Toxicology and Systems Biology (omic)
• Regulation, validated alternatives and future aspects.

Course Content

The course provides an understanding of issues involved in the
development of alternative to animals for hazard and risk assessment of
chemicals. The lectures will cover the 3R principles, i.e. REPLACEMENT,
REFINEMENT AND REDUCTION of Animal use in the life sciences, first
coined by WMS Russel and RL Burch in 1959. Today the 3R principle is a
central part of the Directive 2010/63/EU regulating animal testing and
thus integral part of animal protection law and lab-animal handling in
all EU member states.

Teaching Methods

Teaching will be through lectures and course work.

Method of Assessment

Course work assessment and exam.

Entry Requirements

There are no entry requirements.


The Three Rs and the Humanity Criterion: An Abridged Version of the
Principles of Humane Experimental Technique by W.M.S. Russell and R.L.
Burch, Michael Balls

Bal-Price, A., Jennings, P., 2014. In Vitro Toxicology Systems.

Target Audience

mDDS, mCHEM, mBMS and PhD - AIMMs, but others welcome

Recommended background knowledge

There is no background needed.

General Information

Course Code XM_0066
Credits 6 EC
Period P3
Course Level 400
Language of Tuition English
Faculty Faculty of Science
Course Coordinator prof. dr. P. Jennings
Examiner prof. dr. P. Jennings
Teaching Staff prof. dr. P. Jennings

Practical Information

You need to register for this course yourself

Last-minute registration is available for this course.

Teaching Methods Lecture, Study Group
Target audiences

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