Personalized Medicine

2018-2019
Dit vak wordt in het Engels aangeboden. Omschrijvingen kunnen daardoor mogelijk alleen in het Engels worden weergegeven.

Doel vak

Overall aims of the 1st course:

Upon successful completion of this course, students are able to
understand:
● the new role of imaging in image-guided surgery and image-guided
therapy 1
● the new role of molecular imaging in the early evaluation of therapy
and personalized medicine (precision medicine 2)
● indications and justifications for radiological examination
● clinical contexts and interpretation of the conclusions from
radiologic/nuclear examinations.

Specific learning objectives:

Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:
● explain 5 radiological indications in neurology, oncology, and
cardiopulmonary diseases
● justify the right imaging modality for each indication
● apply the physics of ultrasound, Röntgen, CT, MRI, SPECT and PET
● calculate tissue properties from CT, MRI (T1, T2, perfusion,
diffusion, function), SPECT/PET(metabolic rate)
● explain 5 applications of image-guided surgery, image-guided
radiotherapy and image-guided medication
● calculate the amount of ionizing radiation the patient is exposed to

Overall aims of the 2nd course:

Upon successful completion of this course, students are able to
understand:
● the role of laboratory diagnostics in the evaluation of diagnostics,
therapy and prevention
● the role of the medical laboratory in scientific studies
● the indications and justifications for laboratory diagnostics
● the clinical context and interpretation of the conclusions from
laboratory findings

Specific learning objectives:

Upon successful completion of the 3rd course, students are able to:

● explain the relevant indications for laboratory diagnostics
● understand and recognize the pitfalls of various laboratory assays
● choose the optimal method for diagnostic or research purposes
● describe how the discovery of new biomarkers works

Upon successful completion of this course, students are able to:

● define the discipline of nanomedicine
● provide new insights into medical applications of nanotechnology
● give examples of nanomedicine in diagnosis and therapy
● discuss the implications nanomedicine for tomorrow’s doctors
Specific learning objectives
Upon successful completion of this course, students are able to:
● describe the field of nanomedicine
● explain applications of nanotechnology and nanoscopy in medical
practice
● give specific examples of nanomedicine applications at VUmc
● explain nanomedicine opportunities and challenges in the near future
(i.e. new perspectives for personalized medicine)

Inhoud vak

Medical treatments are usually based on the principle of “one size fits
all.” However, patients differ in genetic profile, immune system,
metabolism and numerous other characteristics. Therefore, for any
individual patient, treatment can be optimized through accounting for
these differing personal characteristics. For example, oncological
treatments aim to target affected cells, without harming normal cells.
To visualize the pathway of the medicine, one can attached it to a
radioactive substance that can be seen at a nuclear medicine scan. You
can then verify if the medicine arrives at the target tissue, and not in
healthy tissues. Also, you can assess if the desired metabolic effect is
reached. Is your patient a responder or not? This is “personalized
medicine.”
The minor track consists of 3 courses:
Course 1: Medical imaging
Course 2: Advanced diagnostics
Course 3: Nanomedicine

The first course, “medical imaging,” will focus on advanced imaging
techniques such as nuclear medicine and MRI. This novel imaging is used
to assess patient response to therapy. This knowledge of these imaging
modalities will be clinically helpful for future doctors.
The second course, “advanced diagnostics,” exposes students to the
latest molecular techniques (e.g., DNA- and RNA-profiling, prenatal
testing), allowing for ultra-sensitive testing and subsequent optimal
therapeutic selection.
The third course, “nanomedicine,” is a new field of medicine in which
small particles of nanometric size (10−9 meter) are used for targeted
drug delivery. These nanoparticles are too large to pass through the
healthy vessel wall, but in diseased regions (due to inflammation or
tumor invasion) the endothelial wall is more permeable, so nanoparticles
can leak through and reach affected tissues. Immunological targeting is
also possible by attaching antibodies to the nanoparticle. Therefore,
maximum effect is reached in the target tissue, while toxic side effects
are avoided.


Course 1: Medical imaging
Coordinator: Dr J.Tim Marcus,
Research theme: Interdisciplinary
Departments: Department of Radiology & Nuclear Medicine (Prof. Guus van
Dongen, Dr J.H. van Waesberghe, Dr Lilian Meijboom, Dr Eef Hendriks, Dr
Martijn Meijerink, Dr Mark Huisman, Prof. O. Hoekstra, Dr Maqsood Yaqub,
Dr Petra Pouwels, Dr Joost Kuijer, Dr Niels Matheijssen, ir. Rob
Peters), Department of Radiotherapy (Dr Stan Heukelom), Department of
Cardiology (Dr C. Allaart).

GENERAL BACKGROUND AND CONTENT:
● Aims and learning objectives to be taught by experts in “Meet the
Expert” session.
● Students prepare the “Meet the Expert” sessions and the practicals.
Students also report on these meetings.
● Weekly themes and clinical examples include neuroscience, oncology,
cardiovascular and pulmonary disease.
● Radiation safety: biological effects of radiation, contamination,
protection.
● Hands-on practicing of imaging and radiation safety in the angio-room
of the hospital.
● Hands-on experience of echography of liver, kidney and other organs.
● Computer practicals with clinical images: How to analyze functional
MRI of the brain?

CONTACT HOURS:
● “Meet the Expert” meetings for interactive teaching of difficult and
challenging topics.
● Site visits to facilities: MRI, PET, Radionuclide Center, Department
of Radiotherapy, etc.
● Radiation safety practice in the angio-room of the hospital.
● Echography practice in the cardiology department.
● Practice exercises under expert guidance: Quantifying clinical images
obtained by MRI and nuclear medicine; Understanding image reconstruction
in nuclear medicine (workstations available with scientific software
packages).

Course 2: Advanced diagnostics
Coordinator: Prof. Cees Oudejans
Research theme: Interdisciplinary
Departments: Department of Medical Microbiology & Infection Control (Dr
T.A.M. Hekker, Prof. C.Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Dr D. Budding, Dr W. Ang,
Dr K. van Dijk ), Department of Medical Oncology (Prof. F. Peters, Dr E.
Giovannetti, Prof. C. Jimenez, Prof. V. van Beusechem, Prof. Tanja de
Gruijl, Prof. A. Griffioen, Dr I. Konings), Department of Neurosurgery
(Prof. T. Würdinger), Department of Pathology (Prof. E. Bloemena, Dr D.
Heideman, Prof. B. Ylstra, Dr M. Pegtel), Department of Clinical
Chemistry (Prof. Cees Oudejans, Dr I. Hubeek, Dr A. Heijboer, Dr E.
Struys, Dr C. Teunissen).

GENERAL BACKGROUND AND CONTENT:
● Aims and learning objectives are to be taught by experts in “Meet the
Expert” sessions.
● Students prepare the “Meet the Expert” sessions and the practicals.
Students also report on the these meetings.
● Weekly themes and clinical examples include pathology, clinical
chemistry, microbiology, medical oncology.
● Site visits to facilities in the VUmc: Department of Pathology,
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Microbiology, Department
of Medical Oncology.
● Hands-on experience of selected laboratory methods.
● E-learning for interpretation of selected diagnostic assays.
Contact hours:
● Study groups where students prepare each meeting and each practical
exercise.
● “Meet the Expert” sessions for interactive teaching of difficult and
challenging topics.

Course 3: Nanomedicine
Course coordinator: Dr R.J.P. Musters
Research theme: interdisciplinary (VUmc, AMC and VU)
Departments: Department of Physiology (Dr R.J.P Musters, Prof. P.
Hordijk, Prof. J. van der Velden), Department of Medical Oncology -
Cancer Center Amsterdam (Dr M. Pegtel), Department of Molecular Cell
Biology and Immunology (Prof. M. van Egmond), Department of Surgery (Dr
K.K. Yeung), and invited guest speakers from academia and industry.
Introduction to nanomedicine
Nanomedicine is the rapidly emerging field of medicine where extremely
small structures and tools (1 nanometer = 10-9 meter) from the parent
field of nanotechnology are employed to develop novel and promising
approaches for the early diagnosis and treatment of diseases. This
offers unique opportunities for developing new therapeutic approaches to
diagnose, prevent, treat and eradicate life-threatening diseases and
conditions, such as cancer, heart failure and diabetes. Nanotechnology
also offers the potential for treating pain and improving medical
techniques, such as bone repair and surgical techniques. In this course,
we also highlight the role of signal transduction through nano-vesicles
(exosomes) in cancer and mechano-transduction by nano-motors
(contractile proteins) in skeletal- and heart muscle disease.

General background and content

Aims and learning objectives to be taught by experts in “Meet the
Expert” sessions.

Weekly themes and clinical examples.
Site visits to facilities in the VUmc, including in the new O2 research
building.
E-learning for various recent nanomedicine applications.

Related courses
Medical Imaging, Advanced Diagnostics.

Onderwijsvorm

Lectures, praticals, working groups

Toetsvorm

1. Participation in study group, exercises, study visits; written
individual exam.
2. Participation in study groups, exercises, study visits; written
individual exam.
3.Team-based learning and individual written exam.

Literatuur

An overview of the study material is placed on CANVAS.

Doelgroep

Bachelor’s students of VUmc School of Medical Sciences and external (and
international) students with a (bio)medical background.

Afwijkende intekenprocedure

Before the start of the semester, students will be invited to select their preferred minor track. However, the Institute of Education and Training (IET) will make a final selection based on both student preferences and availability in the different tracks. Once you have been selected for a track, the IET will make sure you’re registered for all educational activities such as study groups, courses, and exams. Important: Please be aware that in the case that you do not pass an exam, you will NOT be automatically registered for a re-examination, and will need to do this yourself. In order to sign up to re-sit an examination, you will need to apply no later than 2 weeks before the re-examination through the form “Re-take Exam Bachelor of Medicine.”

Toelichting Canvas

This course is supported by a corresponding CANVAS course, which
contains all of the required information of this course including
overview of the required articles and assignments. The CANVAS course
will also be used to post announcements relevant to the course. You will
automatically have access to the CANVAS course.

Algemene informatie

Vakcode M_BPM16
Studiepunten 18 EC
Periode Semester 1
Vakniveau 300
Onderwijstaal Engels
Faculteit VUmc
Vakcoördinator dr. J.T. Marcus
Examinator dr. J.T. Marcus
Docenten

Praktische informatie

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Werkvormen Hoorcollege, Studiegroep, Practicum